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Furthermore, data collection and data analysis are integral parts of the RCT approach. A deep understanding of the Deer Stags Mens Desert Boots Waterproof Mean huge surprise cheap price ue9XHrRwc
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is also important: for example, how will women’s empowerment be measured? Cognitive ability? Financial literacy? How will data on these indicators be collected?

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It is important to remember that, while RCTs can be a rigorous way to measure impact in certain circumstances, they are only one part of a wider array of evaluation tools. That is, they can be a useful addition to any portfolio of methods, but they are unlikely to be able to answer every question. In this section, we will describe some of the binding constraints which would prevent an evaluator from choosing the RCT approach.

One of the major constraints to any quantitative impact evaluation – not just RCTs – is sample size. In the case of RCTs, we are concerned with sample size along two dimensions: the unit of analysis, and the unit of randomization. Both the unit of analysis and the unit of randomization are integral in determining statistical significance and statistical power.

Statistical significance refers to the probability that the results we observe are not purely based on chance. Conventions in the literature state that significance levels above 90% - preferably at 95% - are sufficient. This means that, either 5% or 10% of the time, the results we observe are by chance.

Statistical power, instead, refers to the probability of detecting an impact when there is one. The inverse, then, is how likely are we to miss impact when it occurs (thus generating a “false negative”)? A number of factors determine statistical power: the sample size, the minimum detectable effect size (i.e. how sensitive must the test be), the outcome variable’s underlying variance, the proportion that are in treatment and control, and – if it is a cluster RCT – the intra-cluster correlation. Convention allows 80% to be a sufficient level of power.

There is an argument for saying that, for low levels of power, it is preferable not to conduct an impact evaluation – else resources will be wasted, resources which could be better used elsewhere (in conducting a good process evaluation, for example).

By design, RCTs cannot determine impacts of currently existing projects, that is, of programs that have already launched and did not, by chance, randomly deliver their services. (Most programs are, indeed, not delivered randomly – notable exceptions being Mexico’s PROGRESA and reservations for women and caste minorities under India’s 73rd amendment.) Given that randomization occurs at the moment of implementation, and randomization is integral to the RCT approach, they can only be planned ex ante – not ex post. Thus, for existing programs, RCTs can only be applied to either: roll-outs of the program into new areas, additions to the program (e.g. new products).

Sometimes an algorithm cannot exist for solving an infinite class of problems, particularly when some further restriction is made upon the accepted method. For instance, two problems from Euclid’s time requiring the use of only a compass and a straightedge (unmarked ruler)—trisecting an angle and constructing a square with an area equal to a given circle—were pursued for centuries before they were shown to be impossible. At the turn of the 20th century, the influential German mathematician David Hilbert proposed 23 problems for mathematicians to solve in the coming century. The second problem on his list asked for an investigation of the consistency of the axioms of arithmetic. Most mathematicians had little doubt of the eventual attainment of this goal until 1931, when the Austrian-born logician Kurt Gödel demonstrated the surprising result that there must exist arithmetic propositions (or questions) that cannot be proved or disproved. Essentially, any such proposition leads to a determination procedure that never ends (a condition known as the halting problem). In an unsuccessful effort to Dansko Leather Adjustable Thong Sandals Katy lowest price online WLRHDgfCW
at least which propositions are unsolvable, the English mathematician and logician Alan Turing rigorously defined the loosely understood concept of an algorithm. Although Turing ended up proving that there must exist undecidable propositions, his description of the essential features of any general-purpose algorithm machine, or Asics Metrolyte Black Training Shoes sale Cheapest M0DSMF6L
, became the foundation of computer science . Today the issues of decidability and computability are central to the design of a computer program—a special type of algorithm.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

computer science: Data structures and algorithms
A major area of study in computer science has been the storage of data for efficient search and retrieval. The main memory of a computer is linear, consisting of a sequence of memory cells that are numbered 0, 1, 2,… in order. Similarly, the…
mathematics: Mathematics in the 9th century
…name, , yielded the word .…
operations research: Deriving solutions from models
…the solution is called an algorithm.…
automata theory: Probabilistic questions
…identify an automaton with an algorithm, or rule of computation, in which the output of the automaton was a logically determined function of the explicitly expressed input. From the time of the invention of the all-mechanical escapement clock in Europe toward the end of the 13th century, through the mechanistic…
diagnosis: Formulating a diagnosis
An algorithm is a sequence of alternate steps that can be taken to solve problems—that is, a decision tree. Starting with a chief complaint or key clue, the physician moves along this decision tree, directed one of two ways by each new piece of information, and…
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In modern electret transmitters, developed in the 1970s, the carbon layer is replaced by a thin plastic sheet that has been given a conductive metallic coating on one side. The plastic separates that coating from another metal electrode and maintains an electric field between them. Vibrations caused by speech produce fluctuations in the electric field, which in turn produce small variations in voltage. The voltages are amplified for transmission over the telephone line.

The receiver is located in the earpiece of the telephone’s handset. Operating on electromagnetic principles that were known in Bell’s day, it converts fluctuating electric current into sound waves that reproduce human speech. Fundamentally, it consists of two parts: a permanent magnet, having pole pieces wound with coils of insulated fine wire, and a diaphragm driven by magnetic material that is supported near the pole pieces. Speech currents passing through the coils vary the attraction of the permanent magnet for the diaphragm, causing it to vibrate and produce sound waves.

Through the years the design of the electromagnetic system has been continuously improved. In the most common type of receiver, introduced in the Bell system in 1951, the diaphragm, consisting of a central cone attached to a ring-shaped armature , is driven as a piston to obtain efficient response over a wide frequency range. Telephone receivers are designed to have an accurate response to tones with frequencies of 350 to 3,500 hertz—a Sole Society Embroidered Mules Luella free shipping collections outlet enjoy p9gvr
range that is narrower than the capabilities of the human but sufficient to reproduce normal speech.

The anti-sidetone circuit is an assemblage of transformers, resistors, and capacitors that perform a number of functions. The primary function is to reduce sidetone, which is the distracting sound of the speaker’s own voice coming through the receiver from the transmitter. The anti-sidetone circuit accomplishes this reduction by interposing a transformer between the transmitter circuit and the receiver circuit and by splitting the transmitter signals along two paths. When the divided signals, having opposite polarities, meet at the transformer, they almost entirely cancel each other in crossing to the receiver circuit. The speech signal coming from the other end of the line, on the other hand, arrives at the transformer along a single, undivided path and crosses the transformer unimpeded.

The anti-sidetone circuit also matches the low electrical impedance of the telephone instrument’s circuits to the higher electrical impedance of the telephone line. Impedance matching allows a more efficient flow of current through the system.

Beginning in the early 19th century, several inventors made a number of attempts to transmit sound by electric means. The first inventor to suggest that sound could be transmitted electrically was a Frenchman, Charles Bourseul, who indicated that a diaphragm making and breaking contact with an electrode might be used for this purpose. In the 1850s Italian American inventor Antonio Meucci had electrical devices in his home called telettrofoni that he used to communicate between rooms, though he did not patent his inventions. By 1861 Johann Philipp Reis of Germany had designed several instruments for the transmission of sound. The transmitter Reis employed consisted of a membrane with a metallic strip that would intermittently contact a metallic point connected to an electrical circuit. As sound waves impinged on the membrane, making the membrane vibrate, the circuit would be connected and interrupted at the same rate as the frequency of the sound. The fluctuating electric current thus generated would be transmitted by wire to a receiver, which consisted of an iron needle that was surrounded by the coil of an electromagnet and connected to a sounding box. The fluctuating electric current would generate varying visit browse cheap price Unisex Casual Shoes Moonrock Oxford Tan Turtle Dove Running Shoes Boots Sneakers 3646 xj65Tf
in the coil, and these in turn would force the iron needle to produce vibrations in the sounding box. Reis’s system could thus transmit a simple tone, but it could not reproduce the complex waveforms that make up speech.

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